The Symptoms Of Acid Reflux Disease

The symptoms of acid reflux disease are as follows: heartburn, which is characterized by chest pain; inflammation in the mucosa; difficulty in swallowing; cough and hoarseness. These symptoms are felt by the infected person after eating a fatty meal or drinking liquor, when bending, and worse when constantly smoking. acid reflux disease is primarily caused … Continue reading “The Symptoms Of Acid Reflux Disease”

The symptoms of acid reflux disease are as follows: heartburn, which is characterized by chest pain; inflammation in the mucosa; difficulty in swallowing; cough and hoarseness. These symptoms are felt by the infected person after eating a fatty meal or drinking liquor, when bending, and worse when constantly smoking.

acid reflux disease is primarily caused by the malfunction of the esophageal sphincter. If there is insufficient supply of the stomach acid, the valve in the stomach responsible for churning up foods to the intestine does not open up. Some of the factors that can trigger acid reflux disease are hiatus hernia, zollinger-elison syndrome, hypercalcemia, scleroderma and systemic sclerosis.

According to paradoxical beliefs, drinking alcohol, tea and coffee can lead to gastro esophageal reflux. But recent studies show that although individuals already infected by this disease can be aggravated by alcohol, tea and coffee, these elements do not cause the disease. Compared to smoking which amplifies the risks of getting the disease, alcohol, tea and coffee had the least impact. But this doesn?t mean that GERD infected people are free to take the beverages stated above. Doctors still suggest avoiding drinking of alcohol in order to shun further aggravation.

Smoking is the chief culprit that causes acid reflux disease. Regular smokers for twenty years are 70% susceptible to acid reflux disease compared to non-smokers. And symptoms of those who already developed the GERD are worsened day by day due to smoking.

The highlight of the research is that great amounts of salts are found to be equivalent to regular smoking in terms of the risk of developing GERD. It is not a common knowledge that table salts can cause acid reflux disease but researchers found out in their studies that people who are constantly using extra salt are 70% at risk to have gastro esophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterologists of New York University Medical Center attested this fact.

Gastro esophageal reflux disease can be diagnosed even by the infected person himself through the appearance of the symptoms. In the occurrence of these symptoms, it is advised to undergo the tests conducted by medical experts to clear doubts of having the disease or to carry out possible treatments.

To treat this kind of disorder, there are varieties of ways possible. It can be cured by prescribed drugs such as antacids, by natural way such as change of diet system, elevation of the head when lying down, or to the utmost is surgery. And of course, it will be best to stop or avoid smoking and drinking alcohol especially to people who are vulnerable to acid reflux disease.

Gastro esophageal reflux disease causes a lot of discomfort that it can ruin even your lifestyle. To avoid its bad effects, precautionary measures should be considered. The clich? quote that prevention is better than cure applies always.

Early Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention

These days, many women are delaying pregnancy for their own career-based reasons. While the risk of infertility looms over these women, there is another risk they should be also aware of before postponing pregnancy; the risk of breast cancer. Delaying first pregnancy has been linked with an increased risk of breast cancer while, having kids at an earlier age can help women prevent the occurrence of breast cancer.

Read on to learn how early pregnancy can help you protect yourself against breast cancer and its complications.

Protective Factors Reside Within the Breast

The ultimate cause of breast cancer has not been discovered yet. Several factors such as heredity, presence of a particular gene (called BRCA1 gene) and other environmental factors are known to increase the risk of breast cancer in women. Recent studies have reported that certain protective mechanisms which can prevent the occurrence of breast cancer are present within the breast. These mechanisms were noted to be initiated during the first full term pregnancy (pregnancy that lasts for the complete term and ends with the delivery of the baby).

Early Pregnancy Initiates Cancer Prevention

Although the cancer-preventing mechanism involved resided within the breasts, their activation was tied to the time of pregnancy. Early pregnancies (those before age 20 – 30 years) were noted to activate this mechanism. The activation was brought about by the action of several hormones present within the body.

One of the most important hormones tracked during the study is produced soon after conception (the hormone also helps in the diagnosis of pregnancy). The production of this hormone is important for the pregnancy to continue. Several other hormones and proteins are also secreted during this period. Studies have reported that if the levels of the hormone are high during the first trimester of pregnancy, there is a greater reduction in the risk of breast cancer after the age of 50 years.

It has been noted that breast cancer risk is cut in half in women who are pregnant (more specifically full-term pregnancy) for the first time before the age of 20 years, as compared to women who have their first baby after the age of 30 years.

In animal studies it was observed that a combination of early first-time pregnancy and an important hormone work together to initiate a complex mechanism, bringing about certain molecular level changes within the breast tissues. As a result of this, the reparative ability of the breast tissues is increased along with the activation of genes that help in controlling the growth and death of tissues. These changes also help in preventing the incidence of breast cancer.

Role of Other Pregnancy-Related Factors

Along with a woman’s age at first full-term pregnancy, many other pregnancy-related factors were also noted to influence on breast cancer risk. These included the number of children born, and the duration of breast feeding.

Breast cancer risk of was also reduced by half in women who gave birth to more than 5 children when compared to those who had not given birth. Breast feeding for a minimum period of 1 year after childbirth was also noted to decrease the risk to a great extent.

Pregnancy can hence be one of the most beneficial stages of life for many women. With the increasing incidence of breast cancer in developing countries like the U.S., having a child early and following healthy practices such as breast feeding, can definitely help in reducing the burden of cancer and its related complications.

Breast Cancer ? Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women and the second most common cause of cancer death in women in the U.S. While the majority of new breast cancers are diagnosed as a result of an abnormality seen on a mammogram, a lump or change in consistency of the breast tissue can also be a warning sign of the disease.

The disease is most commonly diagnosed in women over age 50. Very few women under age 30 develop it. Despite the rise in incidence, there has been a small drop in the number of deaths in the recent years and only about one-fifth of cases prove fatal. This reduction is due to improvements in treatment and the increased use of mammography for screening, which means that tumors can be detected early, when they often respond well to treatment.

Fibrocystic breast disease is common and usually benign condition. Symptoms include swollen, tender breasts, and/or one or more lumps. Frequently, symptoms worsen just before a woman’s menstrual cycle, subsiding near the end. For the majority of women these symptoms are a temporary discomfort, however some women experience severe pain.


Age and gender – Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older. The majority of advanced breast cancer cases are found in women over age 50. Women are 100 times more likely to get breast cancer then men

Hereditary risk: It has long been known that women whose mothers or sisters had breast cancer have a higher risk of developing the disease themselves. Recently, it has been discovered that breast cancer can develop when a woman inherits a breast cancer susceptibility gene from one of her parents. The most common of these genes are the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These genes account for about 10 percent of all breast cancer cases and in families that have these genes, the risk of breast cancer can be very high.

Family history of breast cancer – You may also have a higher risk for breast cancer if you have a close relative has had breast, uterine, ovarian, or colon cancer. About 20-30% of women with breast cancer have a family history of the disease.

The widespread use of screening mammography has increased the number of breast cancers found before they cause any symptoms. But some are still not found early.
The most common sign of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A lump that is painless, hard, and has uneven edges is more likely to be cancer. But sometimes cancers can be tender, soft, and rounded.

Breast discharge is a common problem and is rarely a symptom of cancer. Discharge is most concerning if it is from only one breast or if it is bloody. In any case, all breast discharge should be evaluated.


Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for breast cancer. The choice of which type of surgery is based on a number of factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the type of tumor and the person’s overall health and personal wishes. Breast-sparing surgery is often possible.

Chances Of Recurrence Halved Post Radiotherapy In Breast Cancer


Breast cancer requires surgical intervention for long-term prevention and cure. Either a mastectomy is required which comprises of complete removal of the afflicted breast or a breast-conserving surgery is done which comprises of removing only the afflicted section of the breast. Radiotherapy post mastectomy is advised only to patients in whom the chances of a local relapse due to a spread of the disease to the lymph nodesis expected, whereas patients who undergo breast conserving surgery must definitely undergo radiotherapy too.

Numerous studies have been undertaken to establish a sure connection between the local recurrence of breast cancer after breast conserving surgeryand radiotherapy.Undoubtedly at every cancer treatment center breast cancer treatment has changed rapidly since the trials began but still researchers are of the opinion that such studies can provide a peek into new dimensions of breast cancer treatment in the future and reassert the benefits of radiotherapy for patients of breast cancer.


Many studies so far have underlined the importance of radiotherapy in treatment of breast cancer at cancer hospitals. They conclude that radiation therapy is beneficial in preventing cancer from coming back and also that its results are complementary in the systematized surgical management of breast cancer. Some figures are:

Within just12 months of radiotherapy breast cancer relapse is unlikely In the first decade or so this trend remains 10 years 35% of the women with no exposure to radiotherapy had a recurrence.Comparatively only 19% of those who did reported to have a recurrence in the same time span.Taking into consideration a longer period to study correlation between radiotherapy and breast cancer fatalities it was found that in 15 years 25% of the women who did not undergo radiotherapy died from breast cancer Comparatively, only 21% of those who had received radiotherapy died due to breast cancer.


Researchers from Oxford University in a study suggested that in cases that received radiation treatment post surgical intervention for breast cancer the incidents of fatalities also were reduced by about one -sixth,and it also reduced the possibility of the cancer reappearing in the next order to analyze thoroughly the correlation between radiotherapy and breast cancer recurrence a study was conducted by the Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) .It followed the cases for almost a decade of patients who had been part of 17 trials of this most extensive study of the effectiveness of radiotherapy in preventing the recurrence of breast cancer studying around ten thousand patients published its findings in the reputed Lancet Medical Journal.


Experts suggest that all estimates and trends are based on data from thousands of women but actual risk for every individual may be variable and hence sometimes even contrary to the general trends .Patients who are in a younger age -group have been found to be more responsive to radiation therapy for no apparent reason, while older patients witness that the efficacy is slightly reduced though the treatment is not totally ineffective. The proportional benefits do not alter with age.Fewer benefits from radiotherapywere seen in patients who were at low risk of recurrence from the onset.

Radiotherapy has been found to reduce the possibility of breast cancer recurrence,however rapid change in technology and variations in outcomes must be constantly considered.

Diagnosed With Cancer What to Do Next?

There’s no easy way to say it: being diagnosed with cancer is terrifying. As well as the obvious fear of mortality, cancer sufferers are faced with an almost unending supply of decisions to make and information to digest, particularly when it comes to cancer treatments.

It’s only normal to be frightened and confused, especially when you’re unsure of the next step. To give you a helping hand in understanding what to do next, here are some actions you should think about soon after diagnosis.

Tell Somebody

Coming to terms with the very fact that you have cancer by yourself is a tough ask. As humans we simply do not have the emotional capacity to endure such a shock to the system, so it’s important to share the burden with a caring person or persons. Who you tell is up to you. It can be family, friends, colleagues, or even a support group. In many ways it doesn’t matter who knows, just as long as they are willing, and able, to help. However, it is recommended that you tell those loved ones closest to you. Feigning good health and calmness in itself is a tough task and can lead to further physical and mental problems.

Talk to Your Doctor

Once diagnosed with cancer, you need to know what your next step is going to be. To establish this it’s important that you talk to your doctor, or any other medical specialists assigned to your case. These are the people that will walk you through the cancer treatments that you’ll undertake. They can also explain any potential side effects, risks and future possibilities you may be faced with. Seeking a second opinion, both in terms of your diagnosis and any future cancer treatments is also a perfectly acceptable, not to mention logical, thing to do.

Take the Time to Understand Cancer

One of the best ways to cope with cancer is to understand it. There is a large group of people out there that can help you to understand cancer as a disease as well as the many cancer treatments available. This starts with your personal doctor (see above) and goes on to include cancer surgeons and specialists, nurses, patient advocates, and support and charity groups.

It’s also worth remembering that friends, family and colleagues may have experienced what you’re going through, and therefore can offer invaluable advice. Of course, the 21st Century’s greatest research tool, the internet, can be of use. Be sure to check the validity and reputation of any website you visit so you know what you’re reading is accurate and insightful. As well as official websites linked in to cancer charities and well-regarded medical sites, websites like include useful information that may be of assistance to you.

Make Arrangements

As morbid as it sounds, once you’ve been diagnosed with cancer it’s time to create or update a last will and testament. While many cancers today are far from incurable, any cancer sufferer faces at least a small chance that they may die as a result of the disease. Being prepared for such an eventuality is absolutely vital, particularly if you have the welfare of children to think about.

As well as preparing a will, there will be a great deal of other arrangements to be made, some massive and some not so important. Firstly, when it comes to your cancer treatments, who is there to support you with the likes of transport to and from operations and respite care? You will need at least one person, and more likely a small team of people, to help you on your way.

Other arrangements to be considered include:

There will be a wealth of other actions, duties and events to arrange, so you might find making a list very useful.

Try to Remain Positive

Diagnosed With Cancer What to Do Next?It may be easier said than done, but a positive outlook will make tackling decisions, cancer treatments and the disease itself that much easier. It’s also vital to maintaining a stable mental health. Remember as well, you may have been diagnosed with cancer, but you still have plenty to fight for and the odds are most likely in your favor.

What is a Biopsy Procedure?

A Biopsy test involves removing cells or tissues to check under a microscope. Doctors may recommend a biopsy if an initial test suggest that an area of tissue in the body is not functioning normally. It helps to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The subject tissue is generally examined under a microscope or can also be analyzed area of abnormal tissue is called a lesion, a tumor, or a mass. These are general words, used to feature the unknown nature of the tissue.

There are 3 main kinds of biopsies:

Biopsies are done in order to detect the suspicious area either during a physical examination or inside the body on an imaging test. Although it is carried out for cancer diagnosis; however, biopsies also help to identify many other conditions. In some cases, a biopsy of normal-appearing tissue may also be done to check for cancer spread or rejection of a transplanted organ.

In most cases, a biopsy is done to diagnose a problem or to help determine the best therapy option. This can be done through numerous different ways. Nearly all of them involve using a sharp tool to remove a small amount of tissue.

Here are some types of biopsies:

Once the test is done, the tissue is collected and preserved in a diagnostic histopathology setup. It is then provided to a pathologist at a pathology laboratory. Pathologists are doctors who specialize in diagnosing conditions based on tissue samples and other tests. A pathologist examines the specimen under a microscope and by carefully observing the tissue cell’s type, shape, and internal activity (in most cases) a pathologist can diagnose the problem and disclose the results to the concerned doctor.

The time it takes to get results from a biopsy can vary. Sometimes, highly accurate conclusions on biopsies often take a week or longer but in an emergency case, a pathologist may read a biopsy and report back to a surgeon in a few minutes. This is done by a biopsy procedure called the frozen section. During the frozen section procedure, the physician removes a small portion of the tissue mass. The pathologist freezes the tissue in a cryostat machine, cuts the tissue with microtome, and then stains it with various dyes so that it can be examined under the microscope. As soon as the diagnosis is made, the results are communicated to the surgeon.

Biopsies are important to study the health issues people face during their lifetime, without a it, the doctors may not be able to diagnose or treat deadly diseases such as cancer, tumors, etc.

Understanding Chronic Leukemia

Leukemia is a disease of the blood and bone marrow that occurs on the background of genetic predispositions to cancer. Leukemia affects the cellular process of maturation, causing the accumulation of immature blood cells in the spinal marrow and bloodstream. In some cases leukemia causes the incomplete cells to multiply very quickly, while in other cases the abnormal blood cells have prolonged periods of life and persist in different places inside the body. Incomplete blood cells can?t substitute for normal blood cells, as they can?t carry out their roles. The cells affected by leukemia are therefore incompatible with the organism and can cause serious damage.

Judging by the speed of development and the persistence of the disorder, there are two types of leukemia: acute leukemia and chronic leukemia. Judging by the types of stem cells affected by the disorder, leukemia can either be lymphocytic or myelogenous.

Acute leukemia is different from chronic leukemia by the levels that stem cells are able to reach in their development (stem cells that present anomalies still manage to partially develop and either resemble immature cells or complete, normal white blood cells).

Acute leukemia is a form of cancer that develops very rapidly. It is manifested through overpopulation of the blood with immature cells that are unable to fulfill the functions of normal blood cells. In the case of acute leukemia, the marrow is unable to produce normal quantities of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Patients who suffer from leukemia also develop anemia, a deficiency of normal red blood cells. Also, a decreased number of white blood cells reduces the body?s ability of overcoming infections, while the lack of platelets facilitates inflammation and bleeding.

Chronic leukemia tends to develop slower than acute leukemia. In the case of chronic leukemia, the body is able to produce blood cells that are more mature than those produced in acute leukemia. Although these cells may appear incomplete, they can?t fulfill their roles inside the organism and tend to cluster at different levels of the body. They also have a longer period of life.

Chronic leukemia of lymphocytic form is known to affect a type of blood cell called B lymphocyte. The disease weakens the immune system, interferes in the normal activity of the spinal marrow and facilitates the access of harmful cells to body organs. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia first occurs at the levels of the bone marrow, but can quickly spread to different organs and tissue through the bloodstream.

The presence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is usually revealed by blood tests and careful body examination. Although apparently some people may have no symptoms of the disease, other patients may experience fatigue, lack of concentration, poor balance, memory loss, deterioration of vision and hearing, vertigos, body weakness, joint and bone pains. Just like in other forms of the disease, chronic leukemia requires immediate specific treatment and therapy. The chances of fully overcoming the disease are considerably enhanced if it is discovered quickly.

Avemar Acknowledged By Memorial Sloan-kettering Cancer Center

The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York has published an article on Avemar on their website with sections for consumers and health care professionals.

Brand name Avemar is also known as fermented wheat germ extract (WGE), and code name MSC.

Bottom Line: Fermented wheat germ extract has been shown to improve quality of life in some cancer patients.

Avemar fermented wheat germ extract was developed by Mate Hidvegi, a Hungarian chemist, in the 1990s. Av? should not be confused with wheat germ oil. Avemar is used as a dietary supplement by cancer patients in Hungary to improve quality of life.

The Sloan-Kettering Cancer reports that Avemar is used as a dietary supplement by cancer patients in Hungary to improve quality of life. Laboratory studies show that Ave may have anticancer properties. Results from some clinical trials suggest Avemar improves quality of life in some cancer patients.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering continues their article to describe Avemar research, uses, mechanism of action, warnings, contraindications, adverse interactions, drug interactions, literature summary and critique.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center is located at: 1275 York Avenue. New York, New York. 10021. (212) 639-2000

Manifestation Of Bowel Cancer

Bowel cancer is the mainly a very critical disease. These types of disease occur in intestine. It can be in lower intestine or can be in the upper intestine. The bowel cancer is an asymptomatic disease but by regular checkups it can be identified. The manifestations of bowel cancer shows as the symptoms are thin stool, stomach pain or crumply, red bloods on the poop etc. In the term of medical, it can be said that the bowel cancer shows maximum symptoms of the colorectal cancer. The main symptoms of this cancer are, found in the blood in the toilet paper, abdominal pains, which vigorously tremendous crimpy and often changes the bowel habits. The respiratory problem also found in the cancer attacked persons.

The problem in the bowel system is very much embarrassing that anyone can step back. Actually many attacked person can’t decide what to do. They feel themselves in horns of dilemma to take an advice from the doctor. But doctors always assure that the early diagnosis of these types of disease can be cure able by modern medical technology. The colorectal cancer causes due the lack of bloods which is known as anemia in the victim’s body. This is the first symptom of the victims who are asymptomatic from this disease. Especially this disease occur the form of small colon tumors or tumors in the abdominal part of the body or in thin intestine.

There are also many types of symptoms can be found in the victim’s body, those are newly developed diarrhea, constipation, rectal pressure, or a change in stool caliber etc. These symptoms may resemble those of other bowel disorders such as diverticular disease, irritable bowel disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. More advanced colorectal cancer also possess unexpected weight loss. The aproximal colon cancer defines tumors in left side of the body and causes obstructive symptoms earlier in the disease. The stool in the distal colon becomes solid. It creates uneasy to pass easily through a narrowed lumen, and right sided tumors can grow into advanced disease and remain asymptomatic.

In a majority of the cases it’s found that the age of the bowel cancer victim is above 45 years. It causes mainly to the alcoholic drunker, smoker. There are also many causes those are inflammation and obesity. Routine screening should begin at age 45. Although there are published screening guidelines, colonoscpoies are usually performed in clinical practice in place of sigmoidoscopy. But sigmoidoscopy may mistake up to 50% of accuracy. The primary major primary step is to accomplish the process of sigmoidoscopy and then opt for the next one. After getting any positive result should be followed by a colonoscopy. Physical examination is usually followed in early colorectal cancer. In advanced colorectal or bowel cancer shows of bowel obstruction, hepatomegaly, or ascites.

Mesothelioma: What Is It And Why Is It Becoming So So Well Known?

Mesothelioma cancer occurs more commonly in men than in women, the ratio being 3:1. Studies have confirmed the association of mesothelioma cancer with exposure to asbestos. Nearly 60-80% of patients diagnosed with mesothelioma cancer report a history of exposure to asbestos.

About 2500 to 4000 new cases of mesothelioma cancer are diagnosed every year in the U.S. alone with the international statistics being 0.9 per 100,000 persons. Exposure to asbestos through mining, milling, manufacturing, shipyard work, building construction works, insulation, brake linings, roofing materials and other asbestos related products (paints, pipes, textiles, gaskets, etc.) increase the risk of developing mesothelioma cancer.

The treatment options for a mesothelioma cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or a multimodality treatment. Without any treatment, mesothelioma cancer can be fatal within 4-8 months and most die within 18 months of diagnosis since it is fast growing and is at an advanced stage by the time it is diagnosed.

Why are we hearing so much about mesothelioma cancer in recent years? Because mesothelioma has a latency of up to thirty or forty years. This means that those who were exposed to asbestos may not experience any of the symptoms for a 30-40 year period.